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Daoist Identity: History, Lineage, and Ritual

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Daoist Identity: History, Lineage, and Ritual

Edited by Livia Kohn and Harold D. Roth

University ofHawai‘i Press, 2002

About the editors:

  Livia Kohn is professor of religion and East Asian studies atBostonUniversity. See http://liviakohn.com/.

Harold D. Roth is professor of religious studies and East Asian studies atBrownUniversity. See https://research.brown.edu/myresearch/Harold_Roth.

Book description:

  What is Daoism? Who is considered a Daoist, and why? What defines Daoism: Beliefs? Practices? Sectarian concerns? Questions such as these have plagued scholars and followers alike, creating confusion and prejudice. By addressing these questions, this volume opens up the exploration of a fascinating religion.

For more than two thousand years, Daoism has evolved in close interaction with the other major traditions ofChina--Confucianism, Buddhism, ethnic creeds, and popular religion--and adapted many of their features. To the present day, Daoism consists of a multiplicity of beliefs and practices, and continues to develop, as it has for the past millennia, through the interaction between differentiation and integration--the move to change in accordance with political, cultural, and economic developments versus the urge to create stability through belief systems, lineage lines, rituals, and myths.

Daoist Identity is an exploration of the various means by which Daoists over the centuries have created an identity for themselves. Using modern sociological studies of identity formation as its foundation, it brings together a representative sample of in-depth analyses by eminent American and Japanese scholars in the field. The discussion begins with critical examinations of the ways identity was found among the early movements of the Way of Great Peace and the Celestial Masters. The role of sacred texts and literary culture in Daoist identity formation is discussed. The volume then focuses on lineage formation and the increasing role of popular religious practices, such as spirit-writing, in modern Daoism since the Song dynasty. Finally it discusses the Daoist adaptation and reinterpretation of Buddhist rites, such as the feeding of souls in hell and the use of ritual gestures, and the changes made in contemporary Daoism in relation to traditional rites and popular practices. Throughout, the authors consider issues never before discussed in Western scholarly literature, including the role of ethnic groups and their identity in the formation of Daoist communities, the contemporary daotan movement inGuangdongandHong Kong, the evolution of medieval death rituals, and the role of poetry and literati writing in the creation of a personal identity as Daoist.

Contents:

Acknowledgments   ix

Introduction   1

Part I Early Formations

1. Terry F. Kleeman: Ethnic Identity and Daoist Identity in TraditionalChina   23

2. Tsuchiya Masaaki: Confession of Sins and Awareness of Self in the Taiping jing   39

3. Peter Nickerson: “Opening the Way”: Exorcism, Travel, and Soteriology in Early Daoist Mortuary Practice and Its Antecedents   58

Part II Texts and Symbols

4. Mark Csikszentmihàlyi: Traditional Taxonomies and Revealed Texts in the Han   81

5. Suzanne Cahill: Material Culture and the Dao: Textiles, Boats, and Zithers in the Poetry of Yu Xuanji (844–868)   102

6. Mabuchi Masaya: A Mid-Ming Reappraisal of the Laozi: The Case of Wang Dao   127

Part III Lineages and Local Culture

7. Edward L. Davis Arms and the Dao, 2: The Xu Brothers in Tea Country   149

8. Mori Yuria: Identity and Lineage: The Taiyi jinhua zongzhi and the Spirit-Writing Cult to Patriarch Lü in QingChina   165

9. Shiga Ichiko: Manifestations of Lüzu in ModernGuangdongandHong Kong: The Rise and Growth of Spirit-Writing Cults   185

Part IV Ritual Boundaries

10. Charles D. Orzech: Fang Yankou and Pudu: Translation, Metaphor, and Religious Identity   213

11. Mitamura Keiko: Daoist Hand Signs and Buddhist Mudras   235

12. Maruyama Hiroshi: Documents Used in Rituals of Merit in Taiwanese Daoism   256

13. Asano Haruji: Offerings in Daoist Ritual   274

Glossary   295

Names of Authors Cited   309

List of Contributors   311

Index   315

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